A bunion is the enlargement of the joint at the base of the big toe. It occurs as a result of the misalignment of the bones of the big toe. This leads to stretching of the ligaments and tendons around the big toe joint and causes soft tissue over the joint to become inflamed and painful. There may be additional bone formation (exostosis) in the joint and the skin around the joint may become red and tender. Over time the cartilage in the joint can break down, leading to arthritis.
Bunions can be caused by improper footwear. Genetics. Foot injuries. Congenital deformities. Medical conditions such as arthritis. Stress on feet. Bunions are mainly caused by genetics. The bunion itself is not inherited, but the person?s hereditary foot type and gait pattern makes them more prone to developing bunions.You can also begin to develop bunionsby wearing shoes that are too tight or too small. When you wear shoes of this nature, your toes are squeezed together. Bunions are not caused by crowding of the toes, but wearing tight shoes can worsen the condition and cause symptoms to appear sooner. Some people are born with birth defects that put them at higher risk for developing bunions.
SymptomsWith Bunions, a person will have inflammation, swelling, and soreness on the side surface of the big toe. Corns most commonly are tender cone-shaped patches of dry skin on the top or side of the toes. Calluses will appear on high-pressure points of the foot as thick hardened patches of skin.
Although bunions are usually obvious from the pain and unusual shape of the toe, further investigation is often advisable. Your doctor will usually send you for X-rays to determine the extent of the deformity. Blood tests may be advised to see if some type of arthritis could be causing the pain. Based on this evaluation, your doctor can determine whether you need orthopaedic shoes, medication, surgery or other treatment.
Non Surgical Treatment
Treatment may be surgical or non-surgical. The goal of non-surgical treatment is to relieve pressure on the foot and to prevent pressure sores and foot ulcers. This is accomplished by prescribing accommodative shoes with a wide toe box – sandals or extra depth shoes with soft moulded insoles. It may also be possible to relax the leather on shoes to make room for a bunion.
For severe bunions, outpatient surgery may be recommended. Within hours after surgery, you?ll be on your way home and ready for recovery. Your foot will be bandaged following surgery and placed in a surgical shoe which allows you to remain mobile. Immediate weight bearing without the use of casting or crutches is standard post- operative recovery for bunions. In most cases, the majority of healing should occur within a few weeks and you can resume normal activity within a short period of time. Bunion surgery can both reduce pain and improve the appearance of your feet. After surgery it is important to see your podiatrist as scheduled and follow all recovery instructions.
Shoes that possess tapering toe boxes should be avoided if you have a bunion, as narrow toe boxes will hasten the progression of your bunion deformity. In some cases, conservative measures, including switching to appropriate footwear, may not have the desired effect, and your podiatrist may recommend for you a surgical procedure known as a bunionectomy.